全球指纹与皮纹科学研究文献整理 (Part III)
The Japanese palmist Asano relied on the three basic fingerprints, loop, arch and whorl in his 1985 English language publication Hands.(92) People with whorls on their first two fingers (Thumb and index) hate to loose and refuse to submit to the will of others. They are positive in attitude and active in life, undaunted by defeats. If the whorls appear on both fingers of both hands, the subjects are adventurous extroverts. If the whorl is only on the index finger, these socially adroit people are constantly on the move seeking to put their own ideas into practice. They may tend to be insecure and irritable at times. While they may occasionally appear to conform to the will of others, the are actually quite selfish and will persevere.
Asano finds that loops on both the thumb and index fingers will indicate a cautious subject putting prudence before valor. They may let the opportunities of life slip by and may allow themselves to be dominated. Arches found on any of the four fingers will indicate both the bold and the timid, the picture of the bully who will generally improve his lot.
Asano believes that the ring and little finger prints relate to posers of original thought, opposite sex interests and artistic talents and are part of the keys to understanding the subjects aesthetic tastes and creative abilities, and love expectations. Whorls on both fingers indicate passionate subjects towards the opposite sex who have great creative and aesthetic abilities, far above the ordinary with extraordinary intuition and grasp of what others are thinking.
When only one finger is graced with the whorl, the subject still has special artistic or technical skills and ability to produce unusual, original ideas impossible for those of the middling sort to conceive. These may frequently follow long and unpleasant situations or human relationships. They may appear very cool but are quite tender. Their misfortunes and disappointments in love stimulate rather than depress them.
Asano finds that those with whorls on all fingers have outstanding artistic talent together with very easily bruised egos. The frequently find their love rebuffed while they may despise those who admire or love them. Those with loops on all fingers accommodate and survive in troublesome situations. While they appear to be weak, they will fiercely protest if backed into a corner.
Andrew Fitzherbert in his 1986 work Hand Psychology divided the fingerprints into arches, whorls and loops and divided those groups into spiral and concentric whorls, high and low arches, and left and right loops.(93) He continues with the observation that the whorl indicates the individualist: intense, possibly isolated, secretive and thoughtful. The arch signifies the practical doer, who may be suspicious and ask to be show before he or she believes. These people can be steady, useful and realistic, but slow to respond and accept change. The loop fits the adaptable, easy going, flexible, middle of the road personality with wide abilities, who fits in. He follows the line that the concentric whorl may indicate the whorl traits more strongly. He finds those with high arches are usually more skillful and idealistic. He makes no difference between left and right loops and does not distinguish in this work between ulnar and radial loops (which, or course, could be left or right depending on the hand). He indicates that strong, clear prints intensify the character significance of each pattern and bring out the loftier aspects of those traits. He tends to read the characteristics by which print is the dominant print on the hands. He mentions briefly the tented arch and the composite. He clearly distinguishes between a tented arch and a high arch by requiring a “tent pole” for the tented arch (Figure 6), a distinction not observed by Hoffman. Those with composites see two sides to a question and have a difficult time making up their minds. Hence indecision? The tented arch is a sigh of enthusiasm. These subjects have the qualities of the ordinary arch, but become deeply involved with what they do. Hence enthusiasm?
Fitzherbert ascribes meanings to each print type depending on the finger where it is found. On the index finger, the whorl evidences individuality, ability to form one’s own ideas. On the middle finger, the individualism is expressed in working life, often leading to selection of unusual careers. A whorl on the ring finger indicates artistic ability, while the same print on the little finger is usually so seldom found he could make little interpretation of it except in one case. When whorls are found on both the little and ring fingers, it indicates an unusually active subconscious leading to vivid precognition, hunches and mental impressions. On the thumb he say the whorl as indicating the individualistic way of getting things done.
Placing the arch on the thumb indicates a practical, direct approach to tasks. On the index finger, it may indicate a practical approach to personal hobbies and interests, beliefs, that does not carry through to other areas of life. Arches on the middle finger evidence the practical employee and the otherwise intellectually oriented person with this mark may prefer simple, physical tasks. Arches on the ring finger indicate the artistic interest may be represented through craftsmanship. No mention of the arch is made on the little finger. The tented arch adds the element of enthusiasm.
Recognizing that the loop on the little finger is by far the most common print on that finger., he says no more. Not does he discuss the loop on the other fingers. He discusses the composite, noting changeability in beliefs and attitudes if found on the index finger; uncertain and changeable attitudes towards career when found on the middle finger; and variable artistic tastes on the ring finger. He also discusses the loop in connection with the loops of seriousness and humor.
Fitzherbert also discusses palmar skin patterns.(94) In addition to some observations we have seen in Hutchinson’s work above, he indicates that an ulnar directed triradius under the ring finger is a sign of caution. He finds a triradius under the ring finger that has a loop as one arm indicates an affinity with animals, a trait earlier recognized by Hutchinson.(95) He generally follows Hutchinson in relating various signs and loops on the palm to character traits and personal qualities. The S sign generally seen on the hypothenar eminence indicates switching of culturally related sexual roles, while the whorl in the same location shows a specially strong imagination and affinity for visualization. A whorl on the IV interdigital area, where the loop of humor is more likely found, will indicate sarcasm.
Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright,(96) addressed their attention to six types of prints and some problem patterns or defects in them in their 1986 work. The prints addressed were the arch, tented arch, composite, whorl, loop, and peacock’s eye (Figure 10). Arches signify tendencies toward introversion, secrecy, withdrawal, self defensive behavior from rather shy, ordinary and practical people usually not bestowed with an easy life. If they become enthusiasts they may ‘talk your ear off.’ The double loop analysis follows previous observers except for the speculation that if found on the little finger it might be a sign of bisexuality.
The person with many whorls reminds these authors of the anti-hero, cool and calculating with strong emotional control who need either a compliant partner who stays in the background or has his or her own separate career. The whorl on the index finger indicates one who either does not or can not understand other peoples way of life and does not let other competing matters interfere with his or her career. For Fenton and Wright the whorl on the middle finger will increase the serious concern of the subject for matters of self importance. On the ring finger, the whorl indicates tastes set early in life are hard to change and the subject has the right to dictate his or her partners emotions and activity. On the little finger it represents conflicts between shyness in one who could be a teacher or researcher driven by the need to expand his mental horizons.
Fenton and Wright bring out the that the loops indicate not only a quick and elastic mind, but one that quickly becomes board in a subject who just may leave an escape hatch to avoid long commitments. The tented arch shows these writers a subject who may be idealistic but lacks adaptability. This super enthusiastic subject may be easily deranged by changes in circumstance and very sensitive to criticism. The tented arch indicates talent by combining the intensity of the whorl with the flexibility of the loop. An inclosure in the arch (Figure 18 Triad style arch) may look to the authors like a little whorl which may signify the subject is a ‘know it all.’
Terrence Dukes, who is now known as Shifu Nagaboshi Tomino in recognition of his priestly status, described his work including dermatoglyphics as hand analysis focusing on the fundamental teachings of the Wu-Hsing method as practiced within the Chen Yen Esoteric Buddhist tradition.(97) He opines that most now agree that the ancient Buddhist texts that describe the skin color, texture, shape, and gesture as well as wheel patterns are descriptions of dermatogliphia although such texts do not describe them as such. This would have been news to Cummins and Midlo when they published their seminal work in 1943. But Dukes published in 1987.
Dukes discusses a number of dermal patterns, the simple and tented arches, the loop, the falling loop, the whorl, elongated whorl and imploding whorl, the triradius, the flame and the loop as more likely seen on the palm. Each of these patterns symbolize one or more basic elements from which human characteristics may be drawn. The arch symbolizes the Earth element, the loop the water element, the tented arch and the triradius the fire element and the whorl the air element. Other patterns symbolize a combination of elements: the falling loop both water and fire (Figure 19 based on drawing); the elongated whorl both water and air (Figure 20); the imploding whorl both fire and air (Figure 22); and the flame both fire and water (Figure 23).
In the simple pattern of the arch (Figure 5) we find the tribe or group oriented person, often inarticulate and cautious but with a since of the rhythms of life. The characteristics of this sign are related to protection and security and would be accompanied by inhibition.
Sensitivity, artistic interests, responsiveness all with a lack of concentration are shown by the loop (Figure 4). He notes they may lean right or left. The Whorl (Figures 7 and 8) indicates all those elements we have seen above, independence, freedom seeking, often intense, self motivated, secretive, original and emotionally inhibited personality. Elongating the whorl (Figure 20) adds emotional overtones to these qualities so that original ideas may be prompted by emotional experiences.
The tented arch (Figure 6) is a sign of the fire element, hyperactive and powerful, indicating expressive and impulsive subjects. Falling loops represent dualism in approach to experiences. Though highly perceptive, without stabilization in other features of the hand, this is an erratic sign.
The imploding whorl is drawn as if two whorls stand side by side and we have attempted to represent the actual drawings with prints in Figures 21 and 22. However this feature may also be represented by the composite, shown in Figure 9 or perhaps even the double loop shown in Figure 15, or one or more of the accidentals (Figure 16). However the double loop may rather be more representative of the falling loop described above. In any case he describes it as a sign of “incomplete energy transformation.” Because of this it relates to the “mundane world” which means it indicates materialism and inability to adapt. He describes it as folded over and pushed together. He says composites closely resemble it. His imploding whorl appears to be disintegrating.
The descriptions of the triadus, the flame and the loop that lies horizontal across the palmar surface leads us into the other dermatoglyphic patterns of the palm itself. The flame looks like an inverted peacock’s eye. The horizontal loop looks like a loop laid over onto its side. The triadus looks like a triradius. One wonders if he was reading Darlene Hansen (above) when he decided to call the triradius the triadus. He describes it as the “center of energy within a specific pattern.” He also says “It occurs upon every digital and palmar mount, marking its effective source.” As such a mark may not occur on a finger graced with a simple arch print, we are not absolutely sure this is what he means, but then the pattern he shows that looks like a triradius also does not appear on such fingers.
In Dukes’ method of palmistry, each direction on the hand takes on added meanings relating to character. Like other palmists, he finds that the significance of the print is influenced by the direction it lies in relation to other parts of the hand. He also relates gradations of character to the texture of the skin as exhibited by the sizes of the ridges and how they are spaced. They climb the ladder of character as they grow finer and closer. One must take into consideration the finger elements where the sign is found, energy or ether for the thumb, water for the index finger, earth for the middle finger, fire for the ring finger and air for the little finger. He describes finding a simple arch on the ring (fire) finger as an indication of the love of dance, crafts or simple arts. Signs on the energy finger, the thumb, will reflect how one manifests ones desires in the external world.
Dukes refers to three main types of patterns found on the palm, the loop, whorl and flame. And how it is unlikely they will coexist on the same palm. He also notes that triradii are found on the palm and the center of the triradius forms the center of the “mount,” a geographic reference to a location in the palm that has character significance. The loops he pictures in three types depending on how high the loop is, how wide it is and how fine and closely packed the ridges are. Low, wide loops are earth types, while fine and closely packed ridges represent the air element. The drawing of the fire element in loops seems to fall in between, but the language description indicates it is slightly wider and shorter than the earth loop. He finds that all loops on the palm indicate a subject who is essentially responsive. Whorls and flames indicated more individualistic attitudes. Like prints, the palmar patterns take on the characteristics toward which they incline and those related to the areas wherein they lie. Occasionally one will find such marks on the phalanges and these also have characteristics attributed to them.
The epicenter of each fingerprint also has the modifying characteristics of location in relationship to character. Where the epicenter lies closer to the thumb it reflects a predisposition towards external expression, while the opposite is true if it lays closer to the little finger. The higher the epicenter, the more spiritual, idealistic are the subject’s characteristics and vis versa. The tip is also divided in quarters to represent the four elements. In relationship to the thumb the air quadrant is the upper most distant. Water the lower most distant, Fire the upper quadrant nearest the thumb and earth the lower quadrant nearest the thumb. Air relates to spiritual impression, (conceptualization), fire to spiritual expression, water to physical impression (subjectivity) and earth to physical expression.
So the Wu Hsing method of palmistry would combine the meaning of each finger with the type of print, and its level and direction as well as its epicenter to form an accurate plan of the subject’s personal interests and influences. The epicenter seems to bear a close physical similarity to the core as described in criminal forensic science of fingerprint identification and the kernel described above by Jaegers.
Nathaniel Altman combined with two other prominent hand analysts in 1989 to produce two books. With Dr. Scheimann he produced Medical Palmistry(98) an update of Dr. Scheimann’s earlier work. With Andrew Fitzherbert he produced Career, Success and Self Fulfilment.(99) In the former book they dealt with the medical aspects of fingerprints. In the latter they made a short reference to the personality traits represented by the whorls, arches, tented arches, loops and composites.(100) They emphasize that these represent the permanent elements of character that may perhaps be modified, but not discarded. They repeat the general observations of Fitzherbert above.
Paul Gabriel Tesla has produced two books that clearly appear to be attempts to meld ideas of palmistry with dermatoglyphics.(101) Tesla describes the palm from the viewpoint of one studying dermatoglyphics. However, while he shows some dermatoglyphic main line courses in his Crime & Mental Disease in The Hand, he does not discuss the general relevance, if any there be, in their origin and insertions on the palm with respect to character analysis. The spaces between the fingers are know as interdigital spaces and are correctly numbered from the first between the thumb and index finger to the fourth between the ring and little finger. He recognizes 36 types of fingerprints and 20 types of dermal patterns. These include the tri-radius, unpatterned or neutral field, whorl, coil (a type of spiral from a single ridge), loops (including both ulnar and radial loops and some other variations), whorl loop, pocket loop (like a peacock’s eye or flame), entwined loops, opposing loops, head on loops, arch and tented arch, cross patch and cross cuts. In the Complete Science of Hand Reading, he describes his findings on the significance of all of these patterns where found on the palm and fingers. His overall observations are to numerous to capsulize in this short paper, but would be used for inquiry while conducting our future studies. It is enough to say that his 1991 works, by their sheer size, are unique in the reports of hand analysts on personality as reflected in the dermatoglyphics of the palm.
Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar also wrote an Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading after many years of practice and in his 1992 work discussed the loops, arches, tented arches whorls and composites from both health and character aspects.(102) His work was not know to this author while writing my own Encyclopedia. However, Dr. Katakkar may have been even less familiar with the works cited here because he makes the remarkable statement that the patterns of fingertip dermal ridges had never received any attention before his work. Perhaps he is merely speaking for Indian palmists, because it is obvious that by 1992 many palmists had considered the subject.
Dr. Katakkar maintains that the fingerprints show the hereditary character foundation of each person. This is apparently only partially correct as environmental influences also play their rolls. He notes that loops may run right to left or left to right so he does not distinguish between ulnar and radial loops. We have seen this failure in other palmists above. We believe that the distinction of whether a loop is radial or ulnar, besides being anatomically correct, is the only way to make sense of those prints because right and left can depend on whether the hands are observed from the subject’s view or by an independent observer in front of the subject and whether the hands are held fingers up or down.
Dr. Katakkar finds the loop indicates a person with a high degree of emotional elasticity. Such a person can be expected to be very active and ready responses to his environment. However his versatility will make it difficult for him to stick to any one thing and he lacks concentration. This subject will be emotionally impulsive.
Katakkar’s second type of print is the tented arch which he believes indicates more nervous activity that the loop. He finds subjects with this print high strung, nervous and too easily responsive to emotional stimulation. He finds them naturally affected by musical tunes (melody?) and so idealistic as to expect too much from life. By contrast the simple arch represents a secretive type of individual who represses his emotions and sentiments. He will have the appearance of a strong willed person, but in fact is uncertain, bewildered and hesitant. This inhibits him so he may exhibit obstinate characteristics and these mechanisms make him appear to be awkward.
The whorl, also called the chakra, fairs much better in Dr. Katakkar’s estimation. This is a sign of one with definite independence in thought and action. Such persons are original in ideas and independent, resenting dominance of others. While they tend to be better listeners than talkers, they are quite eloquent and clear in their expressions. These self confident subjects follow their own whims and are quite secretive. If found low on the thumb print, it is a sign of good luck unless found on a woman with an ample, round middle phalange of the thumb. In that case it is a sign of infidelity and immorality.
Dr. Katakkar’s last print is the composite. He finds such prints indicate the practical type. He finds that such people can have good judgment but lack common sense. He finds such people too materialistic and lack consideration for the emotional aspects of life. He finds these subjects lack an understanding or appreciation for the ideal visions or plans of life. He also finds such persons lack mental elasticity and are everywhere narrowly limited.
In 1993 Rita Robinson published her dermatoglyphic observations in her Health in Your Hands.(103) She recognized a number of shapes: a simple arch, a sharp parch, a left loop that leans towards the little finger (radial loop?), a right loop that leans towards the thumb (ulnar loop?), double loops that could pass for a composite with both loops entering from the same direction, an oval whorl that looks like an elongated whorl, a spiral whorl and a round whorl that looks like a target whorl. She also describes the triradius and shows the core of a fingerprint. She mentions briefly the subject of ridge count between triradii which we will cover in more depth below. She follows the tradition of citing recent studies for various medical and biological traits and dermal patterns. In commenting on characteristics she adds to the tented arch that it can be a sign of difficulty in expression and tendency to internalize, and emotional insecurity. She cites some commonly held beliefs of other palmists for other character traits.
Richard Webster in his 1994 work, Revealing Hands, discussed the whorl, arch loop and tri-radii (Hyphenated like Dukes) and a group of palmer loops that could be practically laid on top of those mentioned by Hutchinson. From Hutchinson to Webster we can trace some of the development of ideas relating character to loops in the palms in the minds of many “palmists” (Figure 23). Webster’s new loop is the one below the distal transverse crease in the palmar area palmists call upper mars, on the more distal portion of the hypothenar eminence. It bears some of the same personality traits as Jaegers’ triradius in the same location. This indicates a good retention and ability to recall where Jaegers indicated that a triradius (apex) was a sign of enhanced tactile, sensual or emotional memory. His observations of other characteristics of loops on the palm have been described by the prior palmists covered above, as are his explanations of the meanings attributed to the fingerprints.
Moshe Zwang is another modern palmists, as well as acupuncturist and naturopath, who annotates his work and traces his fingerprints back to the work of Jan Purkinje’s patterns and Noel Jaquin’s work. Unfortunately, his 1995 work does not describe his own observations of what particular dermal patterns may signify.(104) Moshe has been studying microscopic changes in the dermatoglyphics resulting from behavioral changes and we look forward to the publication of his work. Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum concentrate on the oriental medical side of dermatoglyphics and add nothing to our character analysis report.(105)
Ray Douglass addressed fingerprints in his 1995(106) work and concluded that the whorl represented independent, self-contained and somewhat dogmatic characteristics. The loop represented the versatile, mercurial mind and quick emotions. The high arch also indicated quick, responsive minds as well as being impulsive and over sensitive. The low arch represented the skeptical and guarded characteristics and the composite the dual personality.
Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright have turned out a new book in 1996(107) and simplified the characteristics related to the fingerprints. The loop represents the team player, adaptable and reliable. The arch represents the shy and repressed. The Peacock’s eye is very rare and signals creativity. The whorl signs the ambitious, selfish and independent. The double loop indicates the two sided person who tries to please everyone.
Lori Read’s 1996 The Art of Hand Reading(108) is graced with some of the best art work of any of the palmistry books illustrating fingerprints and palmar ridge patterns. We have covered the fingerprint characteristics she finds above under prior palmists. She considered both ulnar and radial loops, concentric and spiral whorls, tented and simple arches, composite’s and peacock’s eyes. She notes that it is rare to see the peacock eye on any fingers other than the ring and little fingers and that it is a sign of luck or preservation.(109) On the palm Ms. Reid identifies the common location of the a, b, c, d, and t triradii, the rajah, humor, nature, music, courage loops and she names the serious loop the loop of vocation, saying it indicates dedication to work or career. She identifies the bee as the whorl of music indicating strong musical talent. She adds a loop of water, which is a loop proceeding from about the middle of the palm below the distal transverse crease with its loop at the more proximal end towards the hypothenar eminence. This shows an affinity to water. Reid also identifies a whorl found on the hypothenar eminence and says it signifies a concentration of imaginative talents. See the chart below for a comparison of major palmar dermatoglyphic designs found on some palms.
Some Campbell Studies and Observations
My own studies have provided me with these tentative conclusions regarding certain fingerprints and certain other features of the hands
1. Persons with whorl prints (figures 7 and 8) as their thumb (finger No. 1) will tend to fight rather than fly whereas those with loops (figure 4) will tend to try to avoid the fight. People with composites (incomplete whorls or double loops) (Figures 9, 15 and 22) will tend to suffer from self doubt when it comes to completing their own plans and often fail to complete through hesitation or reverse their own decisions. In addition to this, those with loops together with a transverse creased between the proximal transverse crease and the wrist that runs from the ulnar edge of the hand to the thenar crease on the right hand, and possibly on the left hand at the same level in the center of the hand touching the thenar crease, will tend to become physically ill at their stomach when pressed into confrontation or arguments. The location of the print on the right or left hand will aid in determining in what activities in life the expected behavior will more likely manifest. This will also be influenced by the more currently predominant portion of the brain used to control personal relationships and this in itself can often be determined from the hands through a subsequent, pressure sensitive test.
2. Persons with whorl prints on their index fingers (finger No. 2) tend to be goal oriented whilst those with loops, especially ulnar loops, are more process oriented (drawn toward addressing immediate concerns of life). Radial loops will indicate more “mothering” qualities, good team players and support people. In the ulnar loop the lines that loop begin and end on the little finger side of the hand. The radial loop lines begin and end on the thumb side of the hand. If that loop has a cornel in it (sometimes referred to as a peacock’s eye) the tendency will be the desire to be the mothering leader, needing a crew to work for her or him, such as a ship’s captain. These people take the lead with an audience.
3. Persons with whorl prints on their middle fingers (finger No. 3) tend to be judgmental in that they look at appropriate behavior as “their way or the highway.” They may tend to write their own rules. Those with loops tend to be more “live and let live”.