全球指纹与皮纹科学研究文献整理 (Part II)
Beryl Hutchinson was also interested in how high the triradii were. If there were seven or fewer ridge lines separating it from the palmar-phalangeal crease then the apex could be considered high but if there were fourteen or more lines separating it from the proximal finger crease then the placement was low. The placement of these apices evidenced the manner of the character influence, “instinctive ways of thought,” represented by that particular area of the hand which might otherwise be hidden by other markers of character in the hands. She appeared to be greatly influenced by knowledge of Indian schools of palmistry available to her at the time.
She felt that the location of A, the triradii under the index finger (or what palmist call the Mount of Jupiter), was one of the most important indicators of character and expected behavior. Personal integrity, adherence to a personal code of honor, was indicated by a centrally placed apex. It the sign leans towards the middle finger, then this personal code will yield to the needs of practicality, especially in the needs of family or others who may depend upon the subject. When it is placed in the opposite direction, the personal code may yield to the sense of adventure and perhaps irresponsibility. The high and low placement on a b c and d follows the analysis of the fingerprint, intellectual for high, practical for low.
Hutchinson observed that the b triradius (below the middle finger on what palmist call the Mount of Apollo) was always higher than the others, so she believed that its relative position should be counted by fewer ridge lines to the finger. She found good judgment on those with centrally placed apices but that those whose apex leaned towards the ring finger seemed to be ill advised in financial affairs. she had at the time not seen one leaning towards the thumb. If both the apex and the middle finger lean towards the ring finger she found this related to persons with problems of duty versus happiness. She did follow the main line from b to see if it was linked to c or d. It a link could be found, then she that this lent support for the serious creation or construction of writers, speakers and artists.
The c triradius is located under the ring finger on what the palmist call the Mount of Apollo. She noted it was frequently drawn towards the radial (thumb) side of the hand but could on occasion be found in the opposite direction when the triradii are duplicated as the result of a loop being formed on the palm between the ring and little finger. As the loop had a meaning of its own, no special meaning was attributed to the ulnar triradii. She taught that the high apex was of benefit to the “artist in any branch of expression.” She discussed a curious loop sort of form in the triradius that members of the S.S.P.P. attributed to a devotion and skill with animals.
She taught that the nearer the d triradius was to the center line under the little finger the more the subject appreciated the meaning of words, but not necessarily the lyricism of them. This is in line with the observations that the language center of the brain does not control the poetry which is more under the control of that center of the brain that is involved with syncopation, rhythm aspects of sound. She found in looking for harmony within the person, that one should also check the comparative height of this apex with the one under the index finger and the closer they were to the same height, the more harmonious would be the subjects personality.
Occasionally one may find a triradius on the thenar eminence (Mount of Venus). Other than to note that she had found it more readily on oriental and Jewish hands, she had little to say of it. Perhaps those she observed had some common genetic ancestry.
The is frequently a triradius at center base of the palm, in the area between the two eminences that some palmists call the Mount of Neptune. She speculated over its possible involvement with extra sensory abilities. Traveling further over the palm, towards the inside edge of the hypothenar eminence (the Mount of the Moon) she noted some early dermatoglyphic study that may have correlated this with pre natal conditions. A number of studies have sought to relate this as evidence of some congenital defect. She noted that for palmists it indicated an ability of the subject to draw into sharp focus memories of sensations, feelings, both texturally and emotionally. Finally, she considered the apex on the lower part of the Mount of Luna itself, the hypothenar eminence, and reported that Indian practitioners considered it a bad sign, one of a laborer for others who would not succeed but bring the harvest to those for whom he or she worked.
Palmar Patterns: Hutchinson also explored the meaning of special palmer patterns. (Figure 12) This was not an attempt to gain insight into the possible of any of the origins and endings of main lines used in the regular course of dermatoglyphic studies, but rater it was an attempt to make use of any unusual dermatoglyphic patterns that appeared on the palm.
Hutchinson believed that the loop of humor (a) was an infallible sign of subjects who could see the humorous side of life and had the sense of the ridiculous. But if it crosses over towards the thumb (b) it is more of an indication of vanity, and the vain do not care to be laughed at. She named (c) the loop of serious intent tends to denote people who have a serious purpose in life. While a serious hobby might satisfy those with only one such whorl, two seems to require work of some serious service or contribution. In (d) she followed Indian tradition of relating that loop to one who was born with Royal blood, and looked for personal magnetism or executive abilities.
The (e) type of loop may be found beginning anywhere from below the index finger to the middle of the palm, and can go across the palm or down, and lies near or below the proximal transverse crease (head line). It will tend to end on the hypothenar eminence (Luna). It evidences special qualities of good memory which she said defied exact definition. The (f) loop is related to physical courage. The (g) loop has been related to green thumbs and a discernment of any energies that may be emitted from various substances. Both the (e) and the (g) loop are believed to increase the posers of dowsers, with Hutchinson perhaps giving the edge to the (g) loop. She recalls how village idiots used to be considered to have the “gift of the bees” or other natural traits that made them useful to society. She also noted that this sign was frequently found on people with down’s syndrome. This raises some interesting conjectures.
The loop beginning at the center-base of the hand (j) may take any direction. Hutchinson speculated that it might reflect some powers of imagination or intuition. She had seen the (h) loop so seldom that that she was merely speculating that it reflected some humanistic imagination, kindness or humanitarian aspect of personality.
The loops (I), (k), and (l) she relates to music. (k) may be found on those with a strong emotional bond to music. The cross patterning found in the bee (i) appears to relate to a love of stringed instruments while the brass have their advocates with the (l) loop. The ability to play or compose is not assured.
Occasionally a whorl will be found on the hypothenar eminence (Luna) When not on the hands of schizophrenics she feels that it heightens the individuality of characteristics drawn from the subconscious. A composite found in the same area is an indication of ambivalence. Hutchinson also found that a tented arch in that area was a sign of instinctive enthusiasm. She felt that the arch so often found at the base of the hand and on the thenar eminence evidenced did not represent a field open to investigate because it is so frequently found and lack any radius or any clear focus on western hands. The open field, that area without pattern where the ridges seem to flow smoothly of the percussion were for her an indication of a harmony with nature.
Dr. Scheimann, M.D., referred to both Cummins & Midlo and to Jaquin in his work in 1969.(75) He brought together both observations from the science of dermatoglyphics and cheirology. He discussed a number of fingerprint features as well as features of the dermal ridges on the palm: the loop, the arch, the tented types, the whorl and the composite, the triradius as designated by their scientific designations, a b c d and t (Figure 11) and the atd angle (Figure 13) and the ridge counts on in the loop and between the A and B triradii.
Dr. Scheimann observed that loops and whorls were the more common fingerprints and tented types were the more common palmer patterns. He noted that if one lacked any three of the five more common characteristics, one would be mor predisposed to some congenital defect. Those “normal features were: 1) no patterns on the thenar and hypothenar prominence (mounts of Venus- the base of the thumb and Luna on the hypothenar edge or percussion of the hand); 2)do not have monomorphic hands (monomorphic hands have the same fingerprint on all ten fingers); 3) the ATD angle is around 45%; 4) the average loop ridge count is from 12 to 14; and 5) the AB ridge count is around 34.
He related the following features to the possibility of neurotic predisposition: displaced axial triradius; whorls and loops on the mount of Luna; qn increase of composites on all fingers and the Mount of Venus; and disassociated or ill-formed ridges known as “Strings of Pearls” (Figure 24). He then indicated that he felt that fingerprint patterns indicate certain characteristics and those characteristics at times corresponded to those observed by Jaquin.
Loops: He found that those with six or more loops for fingerprints were adaptable, had both mental and emotional elasticity, easygoing, and perhaps a little too responsive to other’s moods. Versatility fights concentration in this person.
Tented Arches: He observed that those with tented arches sounded like those born under the sign of Libra, strongly influenced by their environment and who “easily gets out of balance.” He also added the traits of peach, harmony and beauty to idealistic.
Composites: This person is plagued by vacillation. His thoughts, like his print patterns, run in two directions.
Arch: Mistrusts himself. Questions his own actions and wisdom. Becomes more introspective with age through his anxiety to avoid error.
Whorl: He felt this was the most important pattern and was the keynote to individuality. Independence, determination and originality unaffected by convention or opposition.
He would look to the thumb as the overall personality indicator if no pattern makes up the majority of the prints and if the thumb pattern is not the same as the predominant pattern on the rest of the fingers, one suspects that the person has a combination of the characteristics shown.
Yusuke Miyamoto divided fingerprints into two types, streams and whirlpools.(76) In his short book for public consumption on the way to use his system, he did not give individual character or psychological meaning to each type. Rather he compared the location of each type on five fingers, thumb through little finger and from that came up with thirty two character types. Each type is infused with a variety of psychological characteristics forming a composite profile of character. He might be considered a modern eastern dactologist. We do not plan top use his approach in any initial investigations. He also follows the oriental approach of reading the right hand prints for women and the left hand prints for men following the theory that the right hand represents the yin, female or negative elements and the left hand represents the yang, male or positive elements. Some Chinese reverse this order after the age of about thirty.(77)
Beverly C. Jaegers published two books the year following the Penrose comment. One was devoted almost entirely to fingerprints and palmar dermatoglyphics and the other to the wider subject of hand analysis. On the palm she identified thirteen patterns. She omitted the Hutchinson Humanism pattern (Figure 12 h) and added two new patterns she had observed. One was an ulnar loop on the proximal phalange of the index finger that she called the Charisma – ‘Presence’ sign. The other new loop was shown as a radial loop on the proximal phalange of the little finger and she called that the Ultra-femininity or masculinity sign.(78)
In her book You and Your Hand she also identified several other palm patterns. She showed a Figure reminiscent of the composite illustrated by Hutchinson on the hypothenar eminence (Luna) and called it the Aquarian or double loop sign. She also identified a wavy formation seen on either the hypothenar or thenar eminence that she related to some astrological influence. She found the loop that Hutchinson called the Rajah (Figure 12 d) was extremely rare, may have something to do with some chromosomal abnormality may occasionally be found on persons with enhanced charisma. She mentioned the connection to royalty. She identified the loop Hutchinson called serious (Figure 12 c) as the common sense loop. She related it to the popular idea of good horse sense, good management of life in all areas and a need to take responsibility towards those around the subject. These people have a good grasp on their own needs and may be capable of giving good advice.
Another contrast with Hutchinson is Jaegers’ description of Hutchinson’s vanity loop (Figure 12 b). She describes it as the ego or relationship loop. She finds these subjects to be extremely self conscious, introspective or over self conscious. Like Hutchinson, she noted that these subjects do not like to be the objects of jokes. She added meaning to the Hutchinson brass music loop (figure 12 l). She mentioned the subjects response to music and rhythm but adds that this is also a sign of empathy to surroundings, where the subject’s moods are greatly influenced by those around him or her. In discussing the loop of memory (figure 12 e) she found that if the loop ran horizontally it indicated a strong memory for facts and figures and information gained through reading. As it dips toward the wrist, the memory is mor colored by remembrance of feeling and emotions of the past.
Jaegers new loop or ultra-femininity or masculinity, which she also calls the Scorpio loop, relates to the id or libido, apparently enhancing it. It may also enhance appreciation of sights and sounds of beauty. The new Jaegers’ loop of charisma represents a particular quality of leadership who attracts people to his or her goals and leadership by his or her mere presence. Most of her other palmar sign observations parallel those of Hutchinson.
Jaegers added new types of fingerprints for our consideration, the loop-arch (figure 14) the double loop or Aquarian (figure 15) as possibly distinguished from the composite (Figure 9) also referred to as the incomplete whorl, and the accidental (figure 14). Her kernel loop later (Figure 10, compound) became a Peacock’s feather and her bulls eye became know as the whorl. She distinguished between the ulnar and radial loops.
She felt the arch evidenced an honest and reliable subject, conservative and taciturn with moral values that could approach the puritanical at times, yet on a person with sensual tendencies. If the hand is strong, the subject will be steady and capable, but found on a weak hand the indication will be of conflict. The persons with the tented arch she divided into two groups, those with a delta, triangle or kernel at the base of the arch and those without. These people enjoy interspersing mental with physical work and those without the kernel are need to stay busy. Those with the kernel are more comfortable with participating in communication and have an “eager, searching intellect. They can tend to be perfectionists. Their sincerity and honesty colors their expectations so they may misjudge others expecting them to have the same sincerity and honesty. Those without the kernel tend to have good technical skills and can be good with animals. The full value of the prints could depend upon the type of hands they are found on.
Arch with Loop: She described an arch with a loop in it. In tradition dermatoglyphics this might either be confused with a loop or an arch. It would appear somewhat like that shown in figure 14. She indicates that it may be indicative of a searching intellect, one who might excel in creative fields that require abstract thought, such as medicine or science, and who have good memories.
Double Loop: She designates the double loop as the Aquarian and finds it most frequently on the 4th (ring) finger which is generally known in palmistry as the sun or Apollo finger but which she and Dennis Fairchild(79) call the Venus finger. The attributes of the double loop are much like the of the composite loops described by Hutchinson and indeed Hutchinson actually pictures a double loop in her book as does Vera Compton and both refer to this feature also as the twinned or entwined loop. Dr. Scheimann appears to picture both, though it is not entirely clear from the illustrations given. Jaquin pictures the incomplete whorl, the type shown in figure 9 above, and calls it the composite. Jaegers gives the subject the ability to “double-think” and have trouble separating reality from fantasy. Depending on how the ability is channeled Jaegers can see the result as either an artist or a liar. Perhaps the consummate con artist?
Whorls: Jaegers adds the nonconformist to the individualist in her analysis of what the spiral whorl indicates (figure 8). The target or concentric circle whorl she describes as a sign that looks like an eye (figure 7). She assigned descriptions dependant on which finger it was found on. On the index finger it indicted good perception. When found on the middle finger, she credits the subject with a genius for organization and categorization who are not confused or disoriented. When found on the ring finger the subject is able to spot the flaw in objects or plans, a fine eye for discernment. As a general rule the target whorl is the sign of inner concentration of the individualistic person who can see all sides of a question and that makes the subject’s decisions harder.
Loops: (figures 4 and 14) Jaegers divides loops into radial and ulnar as do those studying dermatoglyphics and she differentiates these from the radial and ulnar loops with a kernel. Good perception, good visual memory and unique patterns of analysis that allows perception of hidden patterns and agenda, all that may lead to different conclusions from the ‘crowd’ characterize those with radial kernel loops. Those with the ulnar kernel loops are better at plagiarism of assets and ideas of others who can see the talents or shortcomings of others better than their own. They suffer slow or dull thinkers badly. They suffer from too wide ranging interests. The subjects with plain ulnar loops have short attention spans. Think quickly and need changes. They have an adaptable personality and flexible outlook. She believes they may be able to perceive loop holes, can work towards personal goals or the goals of others, loose sight of personal aims when the goal is in sight and are open minded. The radial loop has some of these characteristics, with free flowing ideas and abilities to improvise. This subject seems more individualistic, especially with the loop found on the index finger. But they are much less adaptable and flexible than those found with the ulnar loops. They seldom retain all the information they have gathered.
Accidentals: The other print described by Jaegers is the accidental. This is sort of a catch all category for prints that do on file well in other categories. I have not found in the three books I have of Mrs. Jaegers”s work on palmistry any further description of what these accidentals may evidence in terms of character.
Triradii: Jaegers also considered the significance of triradii in her 1974 book You and Your Hand.(80) She located seven positions for the triradius, one under each finger that we described above as a, b, c, and d, one along the thenar side of the palm below the distal transverse crease (heart line) (in the area of the box on the hand in figure 12), one in the general area that we have formally described as td (Figure 11), and one at the center base of the palm that we have described as t. She considered the td location as the normal placement of the axial triradius. She indicated that the axial triradius at this location evidenced a “normal correspondence between the conscious and subconscious” and “normal prenatal existence The higher location, under the distal transverse crease, (Figure 12 box on hand area) would indicate to her prenatal or later life heart problems and an enhanced tactile, sensual or emotional memory. She illustrated some unfamiliarity with the scientific studies of dermatoglyphics when she discussed the normal placement of the axial triradius at or below where we show td (Figure 11). Cummins & Midlo(81) had reported t as the most frequent location of the axial triradii and cited statistics on the study of 1281 German males in their 1943 book on dermatoglyphics. But Jaegers, possibly unaware of such scientific literature on the subject, stated(82) “Although this placement does not seem to have come to the attention of the scientists, it has been my observation that this particular placement has been found exclusively on the hands of psychics.” She felt this corroborated the findings of astrologers. Perhaps Palmists are fortunate she published after the Penrose letter of 1973. She voiced a desire to be better informed of the work in scientific studies of the hand.
The digital triradii that we show as a, b, c, and d in Figure 11, Jaegers calls Apex triradii, possibly following the leads of Benham and St. Germain. She mentioned a formation below the ring finger that looked more like a neckless than a triradius and indicated subjects with those formations would never achieve happiness in terms considered as popularly desirable, though he or she, through individual efforts, may find satisfaction and contentment. She described ridge counts from the triradii to the proximal finger flexure line as normal if between five and ten, recessed if thirteen or over under fingers 3 and 5 (Saturn and Mercury), and fifteen to seventeen below fingers 2 and 4 (Jupiter and Apollo). High setting would be within three to five ridge lines of that flexure crease. She considered the low setting as repressive and those with high settings had access to the fuller use of the character attributes related to that finger.
A low set apex under the index finger (No. 2) would indicate that leadership abilities would be understated, better expressed in support, or behind the scenes. High settings would provide more support for the active leader. Such a setting would spur ambition, aspirations, and self confidence. If the placement of the apex tends toward the thumb, the quality of fearlessness grows. The self sacrificial or martyr may be indicated if the mount is more radially located. Jaegers also felt the radial location might indicate persons who use others to achieve their own ends.
Jaegers recognized that the triradius under the middle finger would normally be higher than the one under the ring finger. The higher triradius under the middle finger evidences the desire for continuing education and intellectual expansion. Learning for those with normal or more centrally located triradii would preferably come through experience rather than formal education. The low apex indicated the conservationist to her, one interested in gardening or animal husbandry and even vegetarians. People with apices that lean towards the index finger are sensitive about their intellectual accomplishments and shortcomings. They also tend to be tight with finances. It is not a usual location. The more customary location is below the middle of the finger, indicating balanced judgment (justice, fair play and good judgment). With the apex leaning towards the ring finger we may find a more live and let live attitude, accepting human nature in all shades. sh notes that some authorities have held that it represents a spendthrift attitude, but she does not concur. She believes it evidences the humanitarian. If the main line flows from b to d and thus the ridge lines cut off any apex pattern below the third (ring) finger, this is a sign of one possibly gifted in electronics or computer or software design.
Highly placed apices under the ring finger labels one as enjoying the company of others and not caring to be alone. Jaegers finds this person requires constant background noise, such as the TV, or boom box. Rarely self conscious, they enjoy socializing. If both this setting and the one under the little finger are high, they tend to be performers, show offs. It the aspect is low, the person will tend to be more introspective, creating for themselves, such as a diarist. Need for personal space and solitude accompany this sign. The normal location for this apex is from eight to twelve ridge lines below the proximal finger crease. If the apex leans towards the middle finger, intellectual creativity is indicated. It is seldom seen leaning towards the little finger, but when it does, look for a “fascinating conversationalist.” Should no apex be found below this finger, the subjects creativity may be blocked unless their are palmar lines or creases that cut through the ridge lines to reach the proximal finger crease.
Under the Little finger the apex is usually lower set than under the other fingers. If it is set closer to the radial side, it indicates one who finds vocal communication easier. Moving to the center or towards the ulnar side of the hand the apex indicates one who is more relaxed with the written word.
Elizabeth Brenner acknowledges the existence of dermatoglyphics but offers little insight into the complexion of personality in her 1980 discussion of dermatoglyphics.(83) She preferred to advise the readers of the then popular understanding of the scientific studies in the area. Dennis Fairchild in his book of the same year(84) goes into quite extensive observations on character traits and dermal patterns. He shows some strong affinity for the same school as Bevy Jaegers as they both reverse the common palmistry names for the pads under the ring finger and the thumb, calling the one under the ring finger Venus and the one under the thumb the Sun of Apollo.
Dennis Fairchild offered a few new observations in his 1980 publication. He found whorls on the thumb indicated deliberate and careful characters, aggressive in pursuing desires, with a need for recognition, admiration, and to be applauded. This may lead to excesses. On the index finger the whorl can indicate magnetic dynamism. These people set strict rules for self and are willing to accept responsibility for future planning. On the middle (Saturn) finger it denotes the good organizer needing a concrete philosophy of life. Subjects with whorls on the ring finger show an “uncanny” ability to ferret out injustice across their paths. They are effective teachers of morality and truth. Focus is important for these subjects to realize their endless and limitless desires for love, freedom and discoveries. When found on the little finger, the whorl indicates an understanding of people. But they tend to be detached. They are also wealth seekers. Arches on the middle and ring fingers indicate something of the same run for the money. He appears to be confused about the more common loop to be found on the thumb. He says the radial loop is the more common loop. Cummins and Midlo reported in 1943, based on 1905 data from Scotland Yard reporting on fingerprint types of 5,000 individuals that 55.89% had ulnar loops on their right thumb and 0.22% had radial loops. On the left thumb, 65.9% had ulnar loops and .20% had radial loops.(85) Our experience is quite similar. Fairchild did not discuss this further in his recent (1996) palmistry book.(86) Carol Hellings White approaches fingerprint patterns very simply in her 1980 publication, dividing them into four patterns, whorl, loop, arch and composite, without differentiations between ulnar and radial, or tinted and simple arches or other features.(87) She emphasized general characteristics evidenced by these prints. The arch indicates one who sees an orderly, purposeful world in a nonjudgmental, accepting fashion. The loop indicates an active, outgoing person with a love of “progress”, who may be motivated by either feelings of responsibility or desire to be prominent and involved in the limelight. Depth and concentration come to mind when looking at the whorl, a person very selective and otherwise noncommittal. She sees the composite as the combination of the whorl and loop. In this she sees an open minded person, curious and with what she sees as the scientific approach, cautious?
David Brandon-Jones in his 1980 work followed a course of several other palmists listed here of trying to popularize some “scientific” findings with regard to health and dermatoglyphics. He also included a few observations on character traits associated with several fingerprints, the loop, composite loop, whorl, arch, tented arch and peacock’s eye.(88) Following observations we have already encountered he noted that too many loops on the hands, without other strong signs, would be evidence of vacillation, instability and inconsistency. He felt that those with radial loops tried to impress themselves on the world and risked charges of braggadocio.
Indecision is the key in the composite. Brandon-Jones agreed with many other palmists here on the meanings of whorls. Dogmatic stubbornness may be indicted if found on the thumb who will not back down unless the other thumb contains an ulnar loop. People with whorls on their little fingers, it may indicate such independence of thinking that the subject has long since despaired over being understood or sympathized with. The arch is a sign of dependability, once the subject has given his word. He sees the tented arch as a sign of such emotional sensitivity as to be close to instability. These people need quiet, peaceful surroundings. He also observes such people may have very sensitive, acute hearing. The peacock’s eye indicates penetrating perception on any fingers but the ring finger where it seems to indicate the ability to avoid death through accident or intentional trauma.
In 1983 Enid Hoffman addressed her attention to a group loops we have seem previously in Jaegers’ work.(89) She leaves out the ultra-feminine-masculine loop on the little finger and moves the Inspiration loop more into the central area of the ulnar side of the palm. She adds a loop from the palm edge just at the base of the thumb that she says evidences a natural sense of rhythm in people who love melody and harmony and have an aptitude for dance. This may be a little closer to the ideas of Hutchinson, though it is at the more distal location on the thenar eminence, above Ms. Hutchinson’s mark for brass music.
She treats several fingerprints, loops, double loops, concentric whorls, spiral whorls that twist clockwise and counterclockwise, and two types of tented arches, one that looks very much like Fitzherbert’s high arch, below, and one with a triad. She uses the word triad to indicate triradii, and also to an enclosure at the base of a simple arch. She also mentions composites but it is not clear whether she is talking about fingerprints. She adds the team player to loops found on both little fingers or both middle fingers, and achievement through cooperation if found on the index fingers. She notes loops on the index finger also indicate flexibility and one friendly to suggestions for change.
Hoffman stresses the uniqueness represented by whorls as well as the individuality and strong belief system. Whorls on little fingers signify idealism and expectations in close relationships. On the ring finger, besides supporting creative talent, they indicate one not easily influenced when it comes to choices. Whorls on the middle finger evidence heightened concern for strong family, home and career. Whorls on the index finger indicate the decision maker, with a strong personality and sense of self identity and latent powers to take charge. On the thumb the whorls are a strong sign of potential success of one who likes to control.
Hoffman pictures a high arch(90) (as Fitzherbert would describe it below) as a tented arch (Figure 17). She compares those with this sign to mountain climbers who strive to achieve. They often get caught up in social reform, movements, and political causes for the common good. She distinguishes between a high arch that has an enclosure at the base (Figure 18) and one that does not have any inclosure (Figure 17) and calls the enclosure a triad. Those without the triad plug along trying to get others into his or her cause. She confirms the arches indicate stubbornness and that these people do not like to be bossed. She also confirms their practical, reliable and industrious natures. If they have the triad arches on both thumbs, she finds this adds more concentrated power and increases ambition. Strong ambition is indicated when both middle fingers have this sign. These high arches may indicate an interest in the avant garde side of art when found on the ring fingers. On the little finger, goals of marital security and status will loom large.
Enid Hoffman finds that double loops are signs of good judgment in persons who avoid hasty decisions or impulsive behavior. On the thumbs this good judgment will involve goal setting. When found on the index fingers it will signify a good judge of other people. She counsels careers in decision making positions for those with double loops on both middle fingers.
Darlene Hansen went to some effort to annotate her Secrets of the Palm in 1984 and actually referred to several works on dermatoglyphics including the well know book of Cummins and Midlo.(91) She discussed several types of prints, the whorl, loop and arch including the ulnar loop, the “triadus” and radial loop. She distinguishes the character traits between the ulnar loop (mild mannered happy people) with radial loops indicating more individuality, like whorls. She notes that in the orient the whorls are mor associated with the yang elements while the loop is more representative of the yin elements. The whorl on the thumb will indicate one who will get what he wants even if he has to do it in an unusual way. Uniqueness accompanies the whorl characteristics.