全球指纹与皮纹科学研究文献整理 (Part IV)
4. Persons with whorl prints on their ring fingers (finger No. 4) tend to be highly concentrated when at work, and do not take interruption easily. Those with loops on the same finger tend to handle interruption far more easily and can handle tasks with many interruptions but they may be less focused on any single task at hand. (Excellent knowledge to have concerning receptionists and any supervisors in positions that require constant interruptions.)
5. Persons with whorl prints on their little fingers (finger No. 5) tend to interrupt conversations to bring out matters they believe are important even if those matters have nothing to do with the current topics under consideration. Those with loop fingerprints on the same fingers will tend to go with the flow of the conversation and make efforts to fit in even in uncomfortable situations. (Excellent knowledge to have of potential comptrollers and quality control engineers.)
6. Persons with brachytactyly affecting the medial phalange of the 5th finger (a noticeable short middle phalange on the little finger) have a very difficult time making “small talk”, i.e. making talk just to be sociable. (Good quality to look for when its all business, but might fail in situations where “sociability” is a strong requirement.)
7. Persons with interrupted fingerprints (forming no patterns, Figure 24) on their 3rd (middle) finger are likely to have balance problems when they close their eyes and may have problems with personal location orientation. Gloria brought this home to me. She was accompanied by her Chiropractor when I examined her for the second time. She had this type of print. She could never predict from day to day where she would be (very undependable) and would actually loose her balance when she closed her eyes. This may suggest some very interesting neurological possibilities that should still be studied.
8. Persons with plump proximal phalanges on the palm side of their 4th (ring) finger tend to be good hosts or hostesses, liking to entertain while those whose phalange is flat there would rather go out to dinner than entertain.
9. Persons with very few lines on their hands tend to be more anxiety prone, and less able to express their emotions. While appearing very strong, they could be more prone to sudden brake downs, apoplexy and serious reactions to heavy and prolonged stressful situations.
10. The hand on which the fingerprint will be found will dictate the area of life the behavioral reaction is more likely to be displayed, with the left hand markings relating more to the personal, sensitive, home, and sentimental, nurturing family areas of life (except perhaps in some left handed and mixed handed people) while the right will probably relate more to the activities of the subject connected to his or her survival and security, including nest building.
This author(110) has had some success in using the suggestions of both Hutchinson and Jaegers on palmar patterns. On fingerprints, we have tried to keep it simple. The thumb whorl represents the person who hates to loose and thus would more likely fight than fly. The ulnar loop indicates the opposite approach of a person who would rather go around the obstacles in life. The intertwined double loop or composite indicates one who has a hard time separating wishful thinking from that which he or she may know but have no firm grounds to support that knowledge. These people may vacillate if required to act on hunches. They may find some success using the dowser’s techniques to remove their doubt. The arch indicates the hard worker who will undermine the opposition with the same effort as the historical military engineer would undermine fortification walls. The whorl on the index finger will indicate the goal oriented person while the ulnar loop indicates the process oriented person, that is one who would rather work in a job that is concerned with immediate needs. This fits with the versatility and adaptability nature seen in that loop as well as its tendency toward boredom, or lack of concentration. The radial loop adds a different quality, one with more team spirit, of one who is a nurturer or motherer, and turns his or her attention to protecting those persons close and things dear to him or her. Key words describing persons with whorls on the index finger is that they are goal oriented planners, with simple arches, they are implementers, with ulnar loops are processors of the immediate needs and with radial loops they are motherers.
Occasionally one runs into a double loop that parallels the center line of the finger going longitudinally straight back and forth towards the end of the finger. We have found this a good sign of the bargain hunter and might indicate a good buyer when found on either the index finger and perhaps also if found on the middle or ring fingers. The whorl found on the middle finger indicates a person who might say: “Its my way or the highway.” At one time we thought it would mean this person was judgmental according to social norms, but we have come to accept through observation that the whorl judgment may be a very personal one if that suits the subject. The loop on the middle finger indicates a more live and let live attitude. The arch on the same finger indicates one who will “chew over matters” to see what “tastes right” before making a decision.
A whorl on the ring finger indicates strong concentration in activities. Don’t interrupt this person when on the phone. They become quite upset, flustered and possibly angry, when their concentration is broken. They need to be allowed to complete their tasks before starting the next one. By contrast, the loop on the same finger indicates one who can take interruption with equanimity, and would be a far better selection for a busy receptionists’ position. A whorl on the little finger represents one who will speak up even if what she has to say has nothing to do with the conversation, so long as it appears to that subject to be of importance. These are the natural comptrollers, quality control engineers and whistle blowers of society. The loop is more likely to represent one who would go along with the flow of the conversation and blend in.
We find in the peacock’s eye a sign of the performer. In each area it is found, the person will more likely concentrate his or her talents if there is a prospective audience. Otherwise, they will have the roving interests represented by the loops.
Earlier scientific studies related dermatological marking developments to the first four months of gestation, according to Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D.(111). or in the second trimester according to Dr. Theodore J. Berry, M.D., F.A.C.P.(112) Schaumann and Alter(113) describe the process more accurately and in detail as taking place early in fetal development and being genetically determined while being modified by environmental forces as exemplified by exposure to Rubella(114) and Thalidomide(115).
According to Schaumann and Alter, the process of dermal ridge formation begins with the formation of fetal volar pads. These are mound-shaped formations of mesenchymal tissue elevated over the end of the most distal metacarpal bone on each finger, in the interdigital areas just below the fingers, and on the hypothenar and thenar areas of the palms and soles. Secondary pads are found in other areas such as in the center of the palm and on the proximal phalanges. The fingertip formations of volar pads are first visible in the sixth to seventh week of development. William J. Babler indicates the epidermal ridges first appear in the form of localized cell proliferations around the 10th to 11th week of gestation. These proliferations form shallow corrugations that project into the superficial layer of the dermis. The number of ridges continue to increase, being formed either between or adjacent to existing ridges. It is during this period of primary ridge formation that the characteristic patterns are formed.(116) At about 14 weeks the primary ridge formation ceases and secondary ridges begin to form as sweat gland anlagen begin to develop along the apices of the primary ridges at uniform intervals. At this time the epidermal ridges first begin to appear on the volar surfaces. The dermal papillae are reported to develop in the valleys between the ridges on the deep surface of the epidermis around the 24th week. Until then the morphology of primary and secondary ridges appears as a smooth ridge of tissue and thereafter peg like structures, the dermal papillae, characteristic of the definitive dermal ridges are progressively formed.(117)
Babler reports the there is a relationship between the volar pad shape and the epidermal ridge configuration, specifically narrow volar pads related to whorl patterns. There was also a suggestion of association between the shape of the distal phalanx and the pattern type and significant correlations between the bony skeleton of the hand and the epidermal ridge dimensions. If is also suggested that the underlying bony skeleton correlates with the ridge configuration. Also, time of ossification may be a key factor in ridge patterning.(118)
It had been believed that the critical period of development of ridge formation began in the fetus of approximately 70-mm crown-rump length, or about 12 weeks of age.(119) However, we believe this has to be set at a considerably earlier time. The volar pads become visible around the 6th to 7th week of gestation.(120) In addition, clinical evidence supports the finding of arch patterns with shortened distal phalanges or short fingers because of the shortening of their bony parts (brachytactyly).(121) Brachymesophalangia-5 (short-middle phalange) has been detected as early as 41 mm Crown Rump Length growth of the fetus (prior to the 10th week) and prior to the formation of the epidermal ridges.(122) More recently Babler indicated that ossification of the distal phalanges appears to play a key role in epidermal ridge configuration and that any association of pattern type with the length of phalanges may be related to the ossification process of the distal phalanges rather than their size.(123)
As early as 1929 K. Bonnevie had speculated that fingerprint patterns were dependent upon the underlying arrangement of peripheral nerves.(124) W. Hirsch and J. U. Schweichel summarized opinion up to 1973 and pointed out the arrangement of blood vessels and nerve pairs under the smooth epidermis that exists shortly before glandular folds. They speculated that the folds were induced by the blood vessel-nerve pairs.(125) They describe a different and longer development of the dermal ridges some of which may be post natally concluded.(126) They conclude that pattern of papillary ridges is set after the development of the glandular folds, and thus after four months, although the growth pattern of the glandular folds are one of the three forces postulated to control the final highly arranged surface pattern. the glandular folds become perceptible in the forth month. So we have a pattern of development of ridges from possibly as early as the 10th or 11th week of gestation and not being set until after the forth month of gestation and not visible on the surface of the skin until after the sixth month of gestation with some possible minor post natal changes in the form of furrow folds.
Hirsch and Schweichel, supra., emphasize that the neuro epithelium plays an important part in the development of the dermatoglyphic patterns. Numerous aberrations of these patterns are recorded as developed in cases where the nervous tissue has been damaged during embriological development. At that time it was still impossible to posit a casual for the occurrence of any particular pattern alteration in association with either chromosomal anomalies or other clinical syndromes. But even then the authors offered these explanations: 1) failure of nerves to grow into the epithelium may be expressed through dermatoglyphic aplasia (failure to develop); 2) Both qualitative and quantitative deviations of subepithelial nerve branches to form may be evidenced by dermatoglyphic dysplasia (abnormal development); and 3) Where dermatoglyphics are distorted, there may be a disturbance of the spatial arrangement.(127)
By comparison, the neural tube that will develop into the central nervous system and neural crest from which the peripheral nervous system will develop, appears during the third week of gestation. By the fifth week, three main subdivisions of the central nervous system, the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are evident.(128)
We have speculated on a number of factors that correlate the palmer patterns with the development of the nervous system and account for those patterns being reflective of behavioral reactions. Skin cells and the entire vertebrate nervous system develop from the outer most layer of the early embryo, the ectoderm. The nervous system first appears as a thickened column of epithelial cells known as the neural plate. Shortly after it forms it begins to differentiate along its anterior-posterior axis and folds into the neural tube. During this process the primitive forebrain and midbrain begin to form in the anterior section of the tube while the hindbrain and spinal cord begin to develop to the posterior portion of the tube. What controls this regional identification of the neural plate? Apparently this is controlled by adjacent mesoderm,(129) the precursor of bone, connective tissue, muscle, blood, vascular and lymphatic tissue as well as the pleurae of the pericardium and peritoneum.
This has given rise to the theory that normal development of the nervous system is induced by cells of a special region that has been called the organizer. Recently, in confirming this theory in frogs, two proteins, noggin and follistatin, have been identified with inducing the neural development process. After the induction of the neural plate by signals from the organizer region those cells can then differentiate into neurons and glial cells. After the regional identification of the neural plate, the mesodermal tissues continue to impose organization on the sensory and motor axons in the spinal cord, but segmentation of the hindbrain, and perhaps the midbrain and forebrain are presently believed to result from intrinsic cell reactions within the neural tube.(130)
A number of congenital problems have left their marks on both the brain and the hand. Examples of such associations are the significant increases in palmer single flexion creases (“simian line”) and Sydney creases (distal or proximal transverse crease that completely crosses the palm) and mental retardation in a Down syndrom, missing interphalangeal flexion creases in mentally retarded individuals, and “sandal” plantar creases on the soles of those with Down syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.(131) Elevated incidence of Sidney creases have also been observed in children with delayed development, learning difficulties, or minor behavioral problems.(132) Elevated incidence of Sidney lines have also been observed in leukemia,(133) and in environmental congenital rubella and possibly cytomeglaovirus.(134) Other environmental effects were noted to the hand and the palmer creases caused by or related to chemical agents thalidomide, methadone and alcohol.(135) The latter is also related to mental retardation.
Any changes to the normal incidence of transverse creases (Sidney, simian lines and interrupted transverse creases), will occur very early in pregnancy. By about the eighth week of gestation the thenar crease becomes visible starting on the radial side of the hand between the thumb and index finger. Around the ninth week of gestation, the metacarpophalangeal creases (between the palm and the fingers) are visible and the distal interphalangeal crease barely is visible. The thenar crease continues to be visible. As we progress into the tenth week the proximal interphalangeal creases start to become visible. The 12th week brings signs of the distal transverse crease across the palm starting under the area between the index and middle fingers to later extend to the ulnar margin of the palm. By the thirteenth week both the distal and proximal transverse creases are becoming visible and after the 14th week of gestation at the 15th week all palmer creases can be clearly seen. The onset for spontaneous movement of the hand has not been reported until about the middle of the 11th week of pregnancy and fetuses are reported to begin to tightly grasp at 16 to 20 weeks.(136) It would therefore appear that the palmer creases are genetically rather than mechanically induced. It is also interesting to note that Hale observed that dermal ridge differentiation also advances “progressively from the apical pads proximally and in the radio-ulnar (or tibio-fibular) direction.”(137)
We find in interesting to note that the progress of the development of these creases is from the radial to the ulnar side of the hand. We would suspect that Hales observations of similar development of fingerprints accurate, though we would believe that the development of the print on number 4 finger (the ring finger) may, at least at times, precede that of the print on finger three (the middle finger) because of the higher incidence of whorls on the ring finger as compared with the middle finger. However, this may be related to the size of the volar pads and the fact that the ring and index finger are often the same size. Still, one often finds whorls on the ring finger and not on the index finger. Ulnar loops are the most common finger print. And whorls are least common on the little finger and next on the middle finger. They are much more common on the thumbs, index fingers and ring fingers.
Certain elevated frequency of patterns of the epidermal ridges have also been observed in relation to rubella, cytomeglaovirus, and alcohol embryopathy.(138) If this were to hold true in cases coupled with higher elevation of unusual early palmer creases, this could support a hypothesis of an earlier onset of any genetic factors involved in the formation of epidermal ridge patterns.
The relationship of genotypes to phenotypes appears as one of the most promising current area of study to understand the correspondence of hand markings to neurophysiological development. Breakthroughs in the 1990’s in the study of genetic conservation of sequence, equivalence of expression and functional homology not only cross species but also from cell to cell(139) are promising to furnish us with the actual shared messengers or triggers that are responsible for patterning of the neurological structures as well as the skin on the palm.
We believe that both line and epidermal ridge patterning in the foetus may be strongly dependent upon the highly conserved genes that belong to the developmental pathways which function in a variety of diverse cells at different developmental stages are not only good candidates for molecular defects underlying some multi-organ syndromes,(140) but are also good candidates for being involved in patterning of the lines and ridges. So we might look to homebox containing Pax genes that may also be related to specification of neural cell differentiation, or perhaps the Sonic hedgehog (shh) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF-3) which are both expressed in the notochord and later in the floor plate.(141) The Hox genes, or at least their combinational expression, that play a role in the development of the spinal cord and hindbrain development, may also play a role in the midbrain and forebrain.(142) The sonic hedgehog (shh), retinoic acid and its receptors and the homeobox genes are also implicated in the establishment of skin fields, that are also related to well defined programs of pattern formation not only in the CNS but also in the axial skeleton, and the limb buds.(143)
The concept of developmental field is also under current study in connection with both normal and abnormal skin development.(144) Observations accepting the existence of such fields interrelate anatomically distinct structures through co-ordinate development and, because of the immense content of gene interaction within the field, a set of tissues formed in the early stages of embryonic development can react identically to different dysmorphogenetic causes. This may be why some observations of line formations and dermatoglyphic patterns can be related to several mental and physical conditions. This may help us to better understand when, in the developmental process, actual normal and abnormal traits are set up in the subject.
Alberto Damasio recently observed while medical students study the sick mind to learn about psychopathology they are not taught about normal psychology. (145) What we find in the study of the hand that a state of normal psychology varies from person to person. The psychological character reactions that aid homeostasis in one individual do not necessarily promote healthy survival in another. Given this, it is vital in modern medicine that the medical community have the tools available to it to individualize care based upon individual homeostatic needs and modern scientific hand analysis, taking into account the contributions of observant palmists, can help establish those needs in medical, educational, and career planning.
Those using dermatoglyphics in biology and medicine have long been interested in abnormal psychology and congenital defects. Amrita Bagga surveyed and studied the subject of the dermatoglyphic patterns of schizophrenics.(146) W Hirsch could report in 1978 that studies had been performed in relationship to mental retardation, congenital heart defects, diabetes mellitus, several child psychiatric groups, retarded growth, and a number of syndromes.(147) Hirsch found clear relationships. Autosomal trisomies, Trisomy 21 (Downs Syndrome), Trisomy 13 and 18 and trisomy 8 (Mosaicism) have long been the subjected to studies in relationship to dermatoglyphic patterns.(148) And in addition to the trisomy, diabetes mellitus, congenital heart defect and schizophrenia subjects, Danuta Z. Loesch also reports relationship studies with sexual chromosomal anomalies, spina bifida, cleft lip and palate, leukemia and other conditions.(149)
Surprisingly little work can be found in the study of normal psychology and relationships to dermatoglyphic patterns in the MEDLINE indices. This is despite the fact that personality and psychopathology are considered inextricably intertwined hence the multiaxial model of patient diagnosis first adopted in DSM III (and perpetuated in DSM IV).(150)
img src=”PalmD-History.htg/img4.gif” width=”527″ height=”211″ align=”right” >The most tantalizing piece is the work of A. C. Bogle, T. Reed and R. J. Rose. They published in 1994(151) their replication of a study first published in 1987 relating to the combined use of dermatoglyphics and the MMPI tests. The tests indicated that identical twin subjects with asymmetric (dissimilar) patterns on their left and right hands were more likely to suffer from environmental distresses (as opposed to genetic distresses) than identical twins who had symmetric patterns. Twins with asymmetric palmer patterns studied were considered to have poorer genetic buffering against environmental factors than those with symmetrical corresponding palmer patterns. Those with the asymmetrical patterns exhibited “heightened developmental sensitivity to extraneous environmental stress.” The researchers stated that if the asymmetrical subjects had been part of a psychiatric population the recorded personality dimensions would have related to those concerns over physical health and behaviors that are often associated with anxiety and/or depression. Their findings suggested such persons had “poorer genetic buffering” and environmental sensitivity differences could be manifested in clinically correlative behaviors of anxiety or depression and physical complaints.(152)
These conclusions were reached based upon the counting of the dermal ridge lines between the apices, the center of the triradii, below the second and third fingers on each hand (Figure 26, the a and b triradii) and comparing the count. In the Bogle et al study, asymmetry (dissimilarity) was found when the count difference in the number of ridges between the left and right hand measurements was 7 or more. Symmetry was found when the difference in ridge count was 3 or less. The authors noted that these cut off numbers might change for singletons (non identical twins).
What is clear from all of this is that there is more than ample evidence to support the systematic study and analysis of basic personality characteristics and the dermatoglyphic features of the hand that we propose to do. No mind, including the human mind, starts as a tabula rasa. The mind starts with a genetic ‘tool kit’ of development retained over many millions of years. This tool kit not only specifies the pattern of development of the brain but the pattern of development of the hand and the palm. Genetic conservation of sequence, equivalence of expression and functional homology create a cross reference code between the two organs and indeed between the cell formation throughout the whole. And it says in Job 37:7 of the King James version of the bible He [God] sealeth up the hand of every man; that all men may know his work. We can now really begin to read the seals.