全球指纹与皮纹科学研究文献整理 (Part I)
Fingerprints & Palmar Dermatoglyphics
Edward D. Campbell ? 1998. This article will be updated from time to time. Reproduction of this article or any part of it without the written consent of the author is strictly forbidden. Comments are invited to [email protected].
A HISTORY OF DERMATOGLYPHICS, PALMISTRY & CHARACTER IDENTITY
The scientific study of papillary ridges of the hands and feet is credited as beginning with the work of Joannes Evangelista Purkinje, a Czech physiologist and biologist in 1823.(1) Fingerprints had attracted Grew,(2) Bidloo,(3) Malpighius(4) as long ago as 1680’s. Cummins and Midlo mention Hintze, Albinus, Mayer, Schr?ter, and Bell.(5) But the first attempt to systematically categorize fingerprint patterns is found in the work of Purkinje. He used a nine pattern classification. Little was done following Purkinje’s initial paper until 1880 when two papers written Henry Faulds and W. J. Herschel appeared in Nature recommending the use of fingerprints for personal identification.(6) Herschel reported actually using this method of identification in India. Faulds reported his interest in fingerprints dated from finding impressions of them on ancient Japanese pottery.
In 1892 Sir Francis Galton published his classic treaties on fingerprints.(7) While much of Galton’s work was directed towards fingerprint identification uses, he also pursued the subject as a biologist interested in expanding Purkinje’s nine finger patterns in his own classification of the fingerprints and the hand. He coined a number of new terms in the field.(8) He also explored studies of the hereditary aspects of fingerprints, investigating comparisons of siblings, twins and genetically unrelated individuals and was the first to report concordance of papillary ridge patterns among relatives. This opened the field as a useful tool in anthropology.
Dermal palmer and plantar ridges are highly useful in biological studies. Their notably variable characteristics are not duplicated in other people, even in monozygotic twins or even in the same person, from location to location. Because dermal ridges are found on a number of animals, it will be interesting to observe whether dermal patterns are replicated in cloning and if they vary, how they vary. The details of these ridges are permanent. Yet while the individual characteristics are variable, that diversity falls within pattern limits that permit systematic classification.(9)
In the early twentieth century an American, Harris Hawthorne Wilder, pioneered comprehensive studies of the methodology, inheritance and racial variation of palmer and planter papillary ridge patterns as well as fingerprints. He began to publish a series of papers on these subjects in 1902 and continued publication through 1916. These represented the first serious study of palmer and plantar dermatoglyphics.(10) His wife, Inez Whipple-Wilder published the first serious study of non-human epidermal ridges in 1904.(11) Further important genetic studies of fingerprints in the first quarter of the twentieth century were made by the Norwegian Kristine Bonnevie publishing in 1924.(12)
The second quarter of the twentieth century, the field was dominated by Harold Cummins, sometime professor of Microscopic Anatomy at Tulane University. In 1926(13) he coined the word dermatoglyphics and used it at the annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists. It appears in the same year in a paper written with his collaborator Charles Midlo, M.D..(14) That term, dermatoglyphics, is used to this date in describing the scientific fields of study of the palmer and plantar ridges of the hands and feet. In 1929, he together with others, including Midlo and the Wilders, published one of the most widely referenced papers on dermatoglyphic methodology to date.(15) Over the years he, alone and with collaborators, published numerous studies in the field as well as his now famous 1943 book, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles, a bible in the field of dermatoglyphics,(16) which he dedicated to the pioneer Harris Hawthorne Wilder.
Cummins was interested in psychology reflected by the hand. By the time of his 1943 publication he was familiar with the work of dactologists. Dactylomancy was the practice of predicting the human condition and the future in accordance with the number of whorls and loops on the fingers of the subject. Either Cummins or Midlo had this done in 1935. It is interesting to note for our future studies that the dactologist who read one of those authors related whorls to “tenacity, stamina and stick-to-it-iveness.”(17) The authors concluded that character and temperament might well be correlated to dermatoglyphic observations. They quote both Takashima and Kojima concerning character traits found in relationship to fingerprints.(18)
After Cummins and Midlo, the scientific community seems to have overlooked the input of the fingerprint readers. Palmistry fortune tellers, also known as cheirologists, were dismissed in 1973 by L. S. Penrose, a giant in the field in the third quarter of the twentieth century, because he believed that they made no use of the fine dermal ridges which formed the basis of the science of dermatoglyphics.(19)
Penrose was in error, but his error may be why we see little impact from the studies of “cheirologists” on the work of the “scientific” students of dermatoglyphics. The students of hand prophecy have long studied the significance of dermatoglyphic patterns. Mavalwala(20) describes a two volume Japanese manuscript by Ashizuka-Sai Shofou dating from 1820 that lists thirty-two different types of whorls and their incidence in various combinations on the five fingers.
There is a long history in India and China of the use of fingerprints as indications or attributes or character traits. Folk lore from both India and China have traditions of reading certain attributes or abilities from fingerprints. Before we become amused at the tendency to find significance in the counted number of prints, we note that such an approach is often used in scientific studies of the searching for meaningful relationships of fingerprints as genetic and/or chronic health markers. So while the conclusions drawn in Chinese and Hindu folk ways may be quaint, their methods of analysis still persist.
Chinese folk fingerprint formula(21)
One whorl indicates poverty
Two whorls indicate riches
Three and four whorls good aspect to open a pawnshop
Five whorls for a mediator
Six whorls for a thief;
Seven whorls very bad, indicates catastrophes;
Eight whorls and you will eat chaff;
Nine whorls with a loop and there will be no work for you to do, and plenty of food till old age;
Hindu Folk fingerprint formulae(22)
The Hindu formula concerns three types of prints: the Shankh which resembles the ulnar and radial loop; the Chakra or whorl; and the Shakti resembling the composite. These are the ridge patterns recognized in the Hindu school of palmistry according to Dr. M. Katakkar, one of the leading contemporary authorities on that school of palmistry.
When the loop is found on:
One finger, the subject is happy;
But on two Fingers, it is not a favorable sign; and
On three fingers it is a bad sign;
When found only on four fingers it is not a good omen; and when found on five fingers it is not auspicious;
But it is a sign of prowess if found on six fingers; and
When placed on seven fingers live in kingly comfort;
While on eight fingers one is as noble as a king; and
On nine fingers one must live like a king;
But when the loop is found on:
Jupiter (No. 2) finger we have the unsteady spendthrift; yet
Moved to the Saturn (No. 3) finger and it symbolizes many accomplishments of a sage person with a scientific outlook;
Yet poor is he with this print on Apollo (No. 4) finger as he will loose all his wealth in business; and
If found on Mercury, (No. 5) the losses will be in manufacturing.
When the whorl is found on:
Two fingers indicates honors in the courts of kings;
Three fingers is a sign the subject will become wealthy; but
Four fingers the subject will become a pauper;
Five fingers indicates a hedonist;
Six fingers indicates passion satisfied; while
Seven fingers is a sign of virtue;
Eight fingers indicates one prone to disease;
Nine fingers predicts the rise of a king; while
Ten fingers is the sign of the higher man, the Brahman who realizes self.
But when the whorl is found on:
The thumb (finger No. 1), and the life line (thenar crease) is long and strong, the subject will inherit property.
Jupiter finger, then the subject will benefit through relations with friends;
On Saturn the benefit comes from the church, religion or on religious authority;
On Apollo the whorl indicates benefit through trade and one who enjoys prestige and happiness;
On Mercury it is a sign of benefits to be found in manufacturing, science and authorship.
When composites are found on:
One finger such a person is very happy;
On two fingers the subject is an orator;
On three fingers we find a very rich subject; while
Virtuous is the subject with the Shakti on four fingers;
The philosopher (vedantin) is found when five composites are seen; and
If found on six fingers, such a subject possesses high level thinking ability;
Should it be found on seven or more fingers, they are the sign of success in life.
Actually, modern investigators of Palmistry had been expressing an interest in the dermal ridges since the turn of the twentieth century. Comte de Saint-Germain published observations on the relationship of palmer apices (triradii) and distal mounts in 1897-98.(23) (See figure 3) William G. Benham, the noted American palmist, wrote in his treatise on the subject published in 1900 that the dermal ridges that formed an apex under each finger could be used to find the exact center of each mount under the fingers and if it was displaced under the finger, that displacement could be used to indicate influences on the subject’s character.(24) Apparently as he wrote he hadn’t realized that sometimes there might be two apices under fingers and at other times no apex would be found. An apex is known in dermatoglyphics as a triradius. The FBI calls the triradius the delta, as have a number of fingerprint experts.(25)
By the 1930’s the English palmist Noel Jaquin, founder of the Society for the Study of Physiological Patterns, (SSPP)(26) was studying character traits for five different fingerprint patterns, the loop, whorl, arch, tented arch and composite.(27) In 1940 he published his conclusions from his studies.(28) Vera Compton continued these studies and published her views in 1951.(29) Yusuke Miyamoto proposed character trait recognition based on his understanding of some eastern philosophies and various types of fingerprints in 1963.(30) Byrle B. Hutchinson reported in 1967 that the SSPP had collected a library of prints in its efforts to aid the interpretation of these markings.(31) She further interpreted dermatoglyphic markings based upon these files and her own extensive observations.(32) Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D. mentioned them in his work of medical palmistry in 1969.(33) Seven years after Hutchinson’s work, the first two works of the American, Beverly C. Jaegers, appeared in 1974 discussing her own findings on psychological characteristics indicated by dermatoglyphic markings of the hand.(34) Fred Gettings(35) also discussed the subject in 1965.
Since the works of Jaquin, Compton, Miyamoto, Hutchinson, Jaegers and Gettings there have been numerous authors in the field of cheirology who have discussed human psychological characteristic findings related to dermatoglyphic patterns of the hand including Elizabeth Brenner,(36) Dennis Fairchild,(37) Carol Hellings White,(38) David Brandon-Jones,(39) Enid Hoffman,(40) Darlene Hansen,(41) Hachiro Asano,(42) Andrew Fitzherbert,(43) Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright,(44) Terrence Dukes,(45) Nathaniel Altman along with Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D.,(46) and with Nathaniel Altman,(47) Paul Gabriel Tesla,(48) Rita Robinson,(49) Richard Webster,(50) Moshe Zwang,(51) Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum,(52) Ray Douglas,(53) and Lori Reid.(54) It would be foolish to discount these observations. While their observations are published in “Palmistry” books, their observations represent tens of thousands of hours of “clinical” observations and interviews with tens of thousands of subjects. Each of these authors have developed fine eyes for recognizing dermatoglyphic patterns, or at least some of them, through years of practice. Many of them have proven over the years to be good judges of character. Most of these authors deal with fingerprints, some deal with special loops and whorls or other dermatoglyphic markings on the palm and one, Tesla, tries to address the entire palmer dermatoglyphic picture. One of the authors of this work has summarized many of the findings of these people as well as his own “clinical” observations in his own work.(55)
The works by Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D., and by Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum are works written by authors trained in western and eastern medicine. In addition to these works there is the mixture of science and cheirology displayed in the works of Dr. Charlotte Wolf dating from the 1940’s,(56)and more recently those of Arnold Holtzman, Ph.D.,(57) and Yael Haft-Pomrock.(58) Dr. Wolfe traced her psycho-physiological studies of the hand back to the works of Carl Gustav Carus(59) in the middle of the nineteenth century and N. Vashide(60) at the beginning of the twentieth century and on to the psychiatrist Ernst Krestchemer in the 1930’s(61). Krestchemer and Adolf Friedemann(62), professors at Tübingen and Freiburg investigated correlations between hand form and mental illness. More recently Arnold Holtzman and Yael Haft-Pomrock of Israel have actually used such analysis in their psychological practices.
Carl Carus divided the hand into four types, elementary, motoric, sensitive and psychic. Sorell(63), and Wolff(64), have both used this approach. Each of these types of hands reflect certain human characteristics. A description of the Carus system is also found in the books of Fred Gettings (mentioned above) and by Francis King(65). Asano(66) also describes this system but does not mention Carl Carus. Instead he calls this the system used to point out personality differences in Charlotte Wolff’s study.
Asano related the Carus method to that developed Ernest Kretschemer(67) and W. Sheldon. That method provides for the correlation of personality to physical types and biological conditions. The system is referred to as morpho-psychology was used sometime in France and Switzerland for psychological diagnosis. Asano correlated the names of types from the two systems: Wolff’s simple fleshy to Kretschemer’s pyknic, Wolff’s motor bony to Kretschemer’s athletic, and Wolff’s long sensitive to his leptosomatic.
MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS THE PALMISTS FOUND
Noel Jaquin began to speculate about the psychological connections of fingerprints and individual subjects in print in 1933 as he wondered whether the whorl pattern, then commonly found on the prints of certain types of criminals, indicated some defect of moral perception that he would attribute to some psychological deficiency.(68) In that study he divided the prints into five generalized types that he would use for later study and reference in his work: The loop, arch, tented arch, whorl and composite. By the end of that decade he was to publish his conclusions regarding the psychological significance of each of those patterns.(69) Jaquin assigned these general characteristics to each of his five fingerprints:
Loop: Mental and emotional elasticity with possible lack of concentration. Adaptable, versatile and emotionally responsive. (Figure 4)
Arch: Self contained and repressive. Secretive in self defense. Naturally suspicious. Resentful of others achievements who did not posses for their own shortcomings that might bar achievement. Repressive of emotions. (Simple arch figure 5)
Tented Arch: Sensitive and emotional with “artistic” temperament with the appreciation but perhaps not the ability or commitment. Idealistic. Impulsive. High degree of emotional elasticity, high strung nervous system, to sensitive. (Tented arch figure 6)
Whorl: Independent, original, very individualistic. Emotional elasticity determined by selfish needs or desires and limited by mental horizons. Secretive, suspicious. While they may appear conventional, they will disregard convention when it suits their purpose (Figures 7 and 8).
Composite: Practical, material minded. But as the pattern is not completely rounded, the tend to be muddled. Critical and resentful, repressive, lacking elasticity. (Figure 9)
By 1958 Jaquin had added that each fingerprint should be interpreted in the light of those characteristics that are recognized in relation to the hand and finger upon which it is found. He added a lack of spontaneity to the arch print and appeared more comfortable with finding those with tented arches as very artistic or musical.(70)
Vera Compton, publishing in 1953,(71) followed Jaquin’s lead on the psychology of the prints. she looked to the location of the core or center of the print to indicate whether the person was balanced, introvert (towards the little finger) or extravert (towards the thumb). She observed that those with all whorls were the died in the wool individualists. She also observed whorls on the palm of the hand and believed that they intensified any psychological aspect associated with the part of the hand they were found on.
Fred Gettings(72)wrote in his 1965 publication that he was influenced by the Japanese folk lore traditions expressed in European translations of the work of Kojima. He recognized three essential types of prints, whorl, loop and arch. The arch he found to be a regressive sign of a crude, insensitive and hard heartened type of subject. This is softened if the arch is tented. He found subjects with arches defiantly stubborn and if they have arches on most of the fingers, they tend to be rebellious against even the simplest of social conventions. Radial loops he described similarly to his description of whorls, indicating great originality. Because ulnar loops were so common, he inferred it represented the conventional,,unoriginal type of person. He read little into that formation. Whorls indicate more psychological complexity. Reading whorls by the finger, he found that one whorl on the hand located on the little finger would indicate individuality in relationships, unconventional patterns in sex and money. A singular whorl on the ring finger would indicate originality in self expression. He believed that the whorl isolated those characteristics related to the particular finger it occupied and invested those qualities with particular importance.
Beryl B. Hutchinson publishing in 1967(73) observed that those at the S.S.P.P. believed that the dermatoglyphic patterning demonstrated the individual’s personality tools inherited from birth. She noted that if the patterning of the fingerprints was mor distal, the personality would more likely be expressed through theory, abstract thought and ideas, if not ideals. A more proximal placement of the center of the print would result in the personality trait being expressed in a more practical or physical way.
Hutchinson recognized the five fingerprints of Jaquin and Compton but expanded the number of patterns to six and recognized wider variety both in patterns and in their meanings dependent upon the locations where they were found. She recognized a difference between radial and ulnar loops. In the whorl pattern she recognized a difference between concentric circles and the shell pattern. She also recognized the Peacock’s eye as a compound of the whorl and the loop, being a loop with an eye in it.
Loops: she agreed that these were the most frequently found patterns and indicated a graceful, adaptable outlook on life. She distinguished between the radial loop (that proceeds from the direction of the thumb like a lariat thrown in the direction of the little finger) and the ulnar loop that travels in the opposite direction. She noted that the radial loop was most frequently found on the index finger (No. 2) and the thumb but rarely on the other fingers. Those with radial loops appear to be more adaptable so long as the choice is from their own interests, while those with ulnar loops are more apt to act on suggestions from fortune or third persons.
She began to distinguish characteristics of behavior dependant upon where the pattern was found. Thus a loop on the right index finger of a right hander indicated one who could improvise and act in various capacities. If that right handed person has an arch or whorl on the right index finger but a loop on the left index finger, then he is more likely to be able to find his way around fixed obstacles. loops on the middle finger can indicate open mindedness in areas metaphysics and religion and one conversant with a wide variety of topics. Loops on the ring finger indicate an appreciation for fashion and new ideas that conform to the owners conceptions of beauty. Ease of expression is aided by ulnar loops on the little finger. she had at the time never seen a radial loop on the ulnar finger.
She felt that thumb loops showed that will could be easily and variously expressed if the thumb showed there was will power to be expressed. She observed that persons with whorls on their other fingers who had loops on their thumbs should be able to work well with others as the can adapt to the individual vagaries of committees and patrons yet keep their objectives intact.
Whorls: The whorl is sometimes considered a fixed sign, most often found on the ring finger (No. 4) and also frequently encountered on the thumb and the index finger. She distinguished between the whorl formed by concentric circles and the whorl that looks like a spiral or shell. The distinction was that while both patterns carry the same usual meanings, those evidenced by the spiral or shell will be less intense. Like Jaquin and Compton before her the whorl is the mark of the individualist.
Those with whorls take time to train but once trained can respond as if by instinct, very quickly. Their decisions cannot be hurried. Whorls on the index finger show the individualist. It the whorl is on the right index finger, but there is a loop on the left index finger, then there will be more flexibility of choice. With the whorl on both index fingers, the person must not only fid his or her own niche, but they must believe that no one else can fill it, or at least fill at as well, and that it has a community benefit.
Whorls on the middle finger will evidence subjects who have strong ideas on philosophy and these self determined persons may be good at original research. A loop on one of the fingers will broaden the scope of vision. These subjects often have very sincere, even if unorthodox, commitments on religion.
Whorls on the ring finger indicate selectivity in concepts of beauty and happiness. This person will follow his or her own preferences and will not be dissuaded no matter how unorthodox his choice or approach. A loop on one of the fingers will allow a wider selectivity of personal choice.
Little finger whorls evidence subjects who will take painstaking care with the organization of anything undertaken. while one might suspect a gift of oratory, this will only be experienced when the subject is deeply moved. Otherwise, they may be loth to speak, preferring to be “the power behind the throne.”
Whorled thumbs indicate strength in behavior which may be mediated if on thumb has a loop.
Arch: She finds this print, (figure 5) especially on the index finger, as indicative of people who are the salt of the earth. The key words are trustworthy, capable, ability to cope, courage and reliability. If found on the index finger, it will impart these qualities to any loop or whorl print found on the same finger of the other hand.
The serious drawback of arches is lack of ability to express inner feelings and personal thoughts. This is aggravated if there are four or more arches. They may be able to express themselves better through writing and sketching.
Arches found on the middle finger indicate persons with a pragmatic approach to religion, does it improve life, make it better. They approach investments and business the same way. This pragmatism will express itself in the arts in some useful way if the print is found on the third finger. While seldom found on the fourth and fifth fingers, if found on the fifth fingers they tend to be part of a set of arches and seem to increase the reticence of the subject and restrict artistic expression. On the thumb, they frequently accompany a strong will. Again efficiency and practicality rule. They can indicate constructive effort.
Composite: Hutchinson agrees on divided thought patterns, difficult choices and inner conflict. She sees some use in the pattern on the index finger of lawyers or administrators who need to see both sides of a question. When the patterns are large and easily apparent, expect both lines of though to be expressed, so that the subject may find external conflict. with small composite patterns, the subject may suffer from reservations in their responses. Found on the middle finger will show conflict between material and spiritual values. (Figure 9) This is also known as a double loop whorl in F.B.I. textbooks.
Tented Arch: Enthusiasm reigns here, especially where they are found most frequently on the index finger. (Figure 6) When found on the middle finger, one may encounter the enthusiastic convert or follower. she thought it might indicate a gift for music if found on the ring finger but had no proof at the time.
Compound Patterns: Here Hutchinson adds a new pattern, the loop with an whorl or eye in it. (Figure 10) She finds this combines the charm of the loop with the selectivity and discernment of the whorl. Also, as a curious aside, when found on the ring finger, it has indicated much luck in dangerous situations. (I and others I know have found the same curious reaction which may indicate some as yet unknown ability to anticipate and cope within a dangerous situation). The compound is also know as a central pocket loop whorl in F.B.I. textbooks.
Apices: Hutchinson’s work also considered various patterns formed by dermal ridges of the palm.(74) She made detailed observations of the psychological significance of the placement of the Apices, the location of the triradii below the fingers and on the proximal palm in the center and on the hypothenar eminence (a, b, c, d, t or pmt and tb or bt). (Figure 11) She also studied unusual patterns formed in various places on some palms and their traditional and psychological meanings. These included various loops found on the palm between the fingers, in the center of the palm and on the thenar and hypothenar eminences. She is the first cheirologist we have found to publish in depth on these points.
She used the main line patterns of the palm, a major tool in dermatoglyphics, to locate the triradii. Unlike the scientific students of dermatoglyphics, she did not make any point of the destinations of these main lines. She was more interested in the exact location of the triradii, in relation to near hand features, the fingers for those under the fingers, the base and center of the palm in relation to the t and whether a line from or through or through the tb. She felt that the ideal lateral placement for the triradii under the fingers was directly beneath the midline of each finger except the 5th (little) finger where it should be found “aligned with the inner side of the little finger.” (In reading her work one must constantly remind oneself that she starts numbering the fingers from the index finger, not the thumb.)